Why apples turn black on a tree: reasons and methods of struggle

One of the main causes of blackening of apples is a fungal disease called moniliosis, or fruit rot. The apples affected by it rot right on the branches, not having time to ripen, and fall prematurely. The disease tends to spread rapidly in warm and humid weather.

Signs of fruit rot

Symptoms of moniliosis appear even at the stage of flowering of the fruit tree. The incidence of the apple tree is evidenced by the darkening and drying out of flowers and foliage located in the upper part of the branch. Apple blossom and leaves first turn brownish, then gradually dry and crumble.

All apple trees in the garden can be infested in a short time.

Fruit rot also appears later, at the stage of fruiting of the horticultural culture. Apples affected by moniliosis are identified by dark spots, which gradually increase in size and merge with each other. As a result, large areas with a brown color are formed on the fruits, on the surface of which you can see pronounced convex circles of white spores. An apple affected by a fungal infection softens, rots from the inside. It falls off prematurely or is mummified on a branch.

Fruit rot is very dangerous for cultivated plants in the garden.

If you do not fight it, there is a risk of losing up to 80% of the crop. Moniliosis affects not only apple trees, but also pears, quince, cherries, sweet cherries, plums.

Reasons for the appearance of moniliosis

The causative agent of fruit rot affecting apple trees is the ascomycete Monilia fructigena. We are talking about a marsupial fungus, the spores of which are carried around the garden along with raindrops and wind. Insects also transfer them from one tree to another.

The peak incidence of apple trees with moniliosis occurs in mid-summer and early autumn. Garden seed crops are infected with fungal disease throughout the growing season.

After wintering in infected fruits and branches that have not been removed from the site, the fungus becomes active. He is not afraid of frost. Penetrates into fruit trees through damage to the bark or fruit. Once inside the green organism, it intensively develops and multiplies. After a few days, spores of the fungus form on the diseased plant - a source of infection that threatens to infest apple trees and other healthy trees in the garden. Fungal infection is facilitated by a high air humidity and a temperature from +15 ⁰C to +20 ⁰C. In the spring, the fungus Monilia fructigena affects inflorescences with leaves, provoking their darkening, wilting and shedding, and in the summer (second half of the season) - apples growing on branches. As they ripen, the number of affected fruits increases.

A rotting apple left on a branch is a source of fungus infection on nearby shoots. If they are not cut in time, next spring the young twigs and flowers that appear on them will be infected with a fungus.

You cannot leave fallen rotten apples on the ground. They will spread the infection for 2 years.

Methods of control and prevention

Experienced gardeners do not neglect measures to prevent fruit rot. It is easier to prevent a disease than to fight it later. Growing apple varieties that are least susceptible to moniliosis in the garden will help to avoid trouble. We are talking about "Aydared", "Slavyanka", "Pepin saffron", "Uraltsa", "Parmen with winter gold". One of the factors accompanying the defeat of apple trees by the fungus Monilia fructigena is thickening. You can resist the disease by timely and competent pruning of trees - sanitary and formative. The measure will contribute to better illumination of trees, free air circulation in their crowns.

The denser the crown of the tree, the higher the risk of affecting it with moniliosis and other fungal diseases. Pruning is necessary not only for the prevention of fruit rot, it is also resorted to if the culture has already suffered from the fungus.

During the spring and summer season, the gardener should remove every dying branch on the tree. You also need to pick off all spoiled fruits in order to slow down the spread of the disease. To reduce the likelihood of damage to apple trees by fruit rot, competent application of dressings in the spring will also help. A poorly fertilized and weakened plant is more susceptible to moniliosis than one that has received all the nutrients it needs in sufficient quantities.Even the use of preventive measures does not always give a positive result. If the apple orchard nevertheless suffered from the fungus Monilia fructigena, it will need to undergo treatment with fungicides: Oxychom (containing the active ingredient oxadixyl), Horus based on cyprodinil, Topsinom-M (the active ingredient is thiophanate methyl) We can use commercial chemical products with fungicidal properties and in order to prevent the incidence of moniliosis in apple trees. In early spring, it will be necessary to spray the planting with a solution of a preparation containing copper in the composition. You can use Bordeaux liquid (concentration 3%), "Abiga-Peak" or "Oxyhom" preparations. The solution is prepared following the instructions from the manufacturer of the product. To process 1 adult tree, you will need to take at least 2 liters of liquid medicine.

A few days before the apple tree begins to bloom, it is sprayed with Bordeaux liquid (concentration 1%). At this stage of the growing season, you can use the drug "Fitolavin" for the prevention of fungal infection.

30 days before the apple harvest, the third prophylactic antifungal treatment of the orchard is carried out. The solution "Fitosporin-M" is used for spraying. You can also use iodine purchased at the pharmacy. You will need to dissolve the medication (10 ml) in water (10 l). The resulting liquid is irrigated with the crown. After 3 days, the procedure is repeated.In early autumn, after the harvest has been harvested, the trees are processed again to protect against moniliosis. A solution of copper sulfate is used. For its preparation, 100 g of the substance is dissolved in water (10 l). 2-3 liters of the resulting funds are spent on 1 tree.

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The tree needs help, supply it with food, and prevent diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to follow agricultural techniques. It consists in nourishing the tree properly and protecting it. If at the beginning of spring and during the first two months of summer, the tree is regularly fed with organic and mineral nitrogen fertilizers after two weeks, the fruit is poured, and the question of why apples fall off the apple tree in the first period never arises.

A healthy apple tree bears as much fruit as it has enough nutrition from fertilizing, moisture from watering and the energy of light.

In the future, a poured apple will need to create the same taste that a green young apple does not have. Therefore, from the first days of August, the composition of the dressings changes. Now the tree needs a lot of potassium and superphosphate. These substances serve as food for the tree in the autumn, increasing its winter hardiness. They also contribute to the assimilation of the biological form of substances and the creation of amino acids, enzymes that make the apple ruddy, tasty, aromatic. By feeding the tree, we expect from it a large harvest of delicious juicy apples.

Watering the apple tree during fruiting is of great importance. Not getting enough moisture, in order to preserve itself, the tree draws liquid from the fruits, which can wrinkle and fall off. Therefore, regular watering of the garden during fruiting is required. But the roots need oxygen, and if it rains for weeks, the soil is oversaturated with moisture, dropping apples is also possible. Under these conditions, aeration of the soil is required, saturation of it with air by deep loosening of the trunk circle. It is not difficult to carry out these activities, and the question of why the fruits of the apple trees are crumbling will never bother a caring summer resident.

How to deal with the apple moth

The apple moth is the most dangerous pest of apple fruit. It hibernates in the stage of adult caterpillars in a cocoon, mainly on the bark, in the soil or other places. During the flowering of apple trees, the caterpillar turns into a butterfly and with the end of flowering, they fly out and lay eggs on the leaves or fruits. Then, after a few days, new caterpillars appear from the eggs and begin to eat the fruits on the trees.

In the middle lane and in the north, during the summer period, there is only one such turnover of the transformation of caterpillars into butterflies and vice versa, but in the southern regions this can happen twice.

In order to properly deal with the moth on apple trees, it is necessary at the time of the mass development of caterpillars to spray the trees with chemicals, for example, benzophosphate. Also, apple trees are treated with pesticide solutions: the first time 20 days after the end of flowering, the second - 10 days after the first.

In addition to spraying with chemicals, a number of preventive measures are carried out. Most importantly, the old fallen apple fruits are removed. It is effective to do this in the evening, when the moth caterpillars are in them. Fallen apples, which are of no value, are buried in the ground to a depth of more than 50 cm. Also, in autumn, tree trunks are cleaned from dry and dead bark, as well as from caterpillars that are taken under it for wintering.

Another good way to deal with the moth is to use trapping belts. For them, several layers of thick paper or burlap about 20 cm wide are used. The belts are tied from above and below with twine or other rope. Usually such belts are located in the lower part of the stem two weeks after flowering and checked once after harvest. To prevent the twine from cutting into the bark of trees, it is gradually weakened.

For a positive outcome of the fight against the codling moth, it is better to use all of the above methods together.

How to deal with rust on apple leaves

Next, we will consider the preventive measures that must be taken to prevent the spread of the disease. You need to start in autumn with the collection and destruction of all fallen leaves, since pest spores can winter in them, and in the spring they can infect new areas.

How to process

You also need to spray the crown of the tree with a solution of urea (700 grams of carbamide is dissolved in ten liters of warm water).

In addition, it is necessary to conduct a superficial examination of the trunk and branches of the tree in order to identify an increase in rust. Such places need to be cut out and covered with garden varnish or treated with 5% concentration of iron sulfate, the operation should be carried out before bud break.

Of the chemicals for spraying rust on apple leaves, solutions containing copper are used (colloidal sulfur, Bordeaux mixture, Blue-Bordeaux, Cuproxat). The first time the treatment is carried out shortly before flowering, then several more times with an interval of two weeks.

There are also folk methods of dealing with rust - these are all kinds of infusions based on mullein, wood ash, marigolds, and also use a decoction of horsetail.

Mechanical damage

The sequence of actions for minor injuries:

  1. Cut out dead bark.
  2. Spray the plant with a solution of copper sulfate (3% concentration will be sufficient).
  3. Lubricate the cut with garden varnish or make a compress from a solution of mullein and clay.
  4. Cover everything with a cloth to keep the compress on the trunk.
  5. Keep the winding moist for a month (for example, by spraying it with clean water).

Fusarium dry rot

Fusarium actively develops during periods of high humidity and cool weather. Its first signs can be seen already during the growing season of the potato. On the leaves (starting from the top of the stem), yellow, then brown spots appear, along the edges of the leaves often turn reddish-purple and curl. With a strong infection, the stems begin to turn brown, and soon the whole plant dries up.

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During storage, dark spots with a wrinkled surface appear on the tubers, over time they become depressed. The peel is covered with a white bloom, similar to mold, and cavities with mycelium are formed inside. Closer to spring, the affected potatoes dry out, becoming light and almost empty inside. In some cases, fusarium is accompanied by wet rot.

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Prevention and control measures for fusarium potato:

  • Selection of potato varieties resistant to the disease (for example, Detskoselsky, Berlichingen, Priekulsky early, etc.).
  • Selection of healthy, intact tubers for planting.
  • Harvesting tubers in dry, sunny weather.
  • Preventive treatment of tubers before storage with a fungicide (for example, Fitosporin-M, Kagatnik, Maxim, Baktofit).
  • Drying tubers before storage in a dry, dark room with good ventilation.
  • Laying of whole undamaged tubers for storage with a layer of no more than 1 m.
  • Creating the right conditions for storing potatoes - temperature about 2-3 ° C, humidity - 80-90%, lack of light, good ventilation.

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Chemical and folk methods

The treatment of scab on fruit plantations is carried out with the help of fungicides, with the same action. This is the only way to achieve the desired result. On household plots, it is recommended to use pesticides of 4 and 5 hazard classes. These preparations do not pose a danger to human health and future crops.

Copper sulfate and Bordeaux liquid are the most effective drugs in the treatment of fruit tree scab. Spraying of the aboveground part of the trees is carried out in the morning or evening hours in calm weather. In this case, it is necessary to observe all precautions - wear a protective mask, gloves and goggles.

This disease can be cured with folk remedies:

  • Mustard solution. Dissolve 40 g of the substance in a small amount of warm water. Bring the resulting mixture to a volume of five liters with water. The entire aboveground part of the trees and tree trunks are irrigated with a fresh solution.
  • Potassium permanganate solution. Dissolve 10 g of the substance in 20 liters of water. Processing is carried out three times per season - the first in the spring, the second in the summer and the third - at the beginning of the fall.

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