Many gardeners use as organic fertilizer peat... Let us explain why now.
Peat consists mainly of dead plant debris, more or less decomposed. Of the nutrients, it contains only nitrogen in significant quantities (up to 20 kg or more per ton), but it is used very little by plants. As a rule, only 3-5 percent of nitrogen is absorbed, that is, 0.6-1 kg from a ton of peat. The availability of nitrogen and its amount in peat depends on the type of peat (its origin).
Peat is high-moor, low-lying and transitional. It also differs in acidity, content of minerals and plant residues, moisture capacity, degree of decomposition. Lowland peat is the richest in nitrogen, and high-moor peat is the poorest. And the availability of nitrogen in the latter type of peat is the lowest.
Many freshly mined or poorly ventilated peats can contain a high content of substances toxic to plants. These compounds decompose quickly with good aeration, but the introduction of such peat into the soil immediately before sowing or planting can adversely affect the growth and productivity of plants.
The availability of nitrogen can be increased and accelerated by heating peat at a temperature of 60 ° C, which occurs during composting. Therefore, do not rush to fertilize the soil with the newly acquired peat. It is good to use it for composting with faeces, fresh manure, kitchen waste and plant debris. If the compostable mixture dries out, it must be moistened. Peat-fecal compost can be used two years after laying, adding no more than 2-3 kg per 1 square meter to the soil for spring digging. m, since it contains an increased amount of nutrients.
Pure peat as a fertilizer is most effective on poor uncultivated sandy or clay soils with a low organic matter content. Practically without affecting the supply of soil with nutrients for plants, peat still increases the content of organic matter, improves the structure of the soil, it becomes warmer, friable, water and air permeable.
If the soil is well cultivated, contains 4-5 percent of humus, has a favorable mechanical composition for plants (medium and light loamy), then the introduction of peat gives little.
Since this is a very stable material (it holds all the substances in it well), you can add it to the soil at any time, even in winter on snow (if the area is flat), and the more, the better. It is impossible to over-fertilize the soil with peat. However, one should take into account the high acidity of peat (pH 2.5-3.0, and acidity of pH 5.5-7.0 is required for plant growth). To neutralize acidity, add 4-6 kg of lime or dolomite flour per 100 kg of peat.
The introduction of complex mineral fertilizers is also necessary (50-70 g per 1 sq. M). To increase the organic matter content by 1 percent, you need 12-15 kg of peat (2-3 buckets) per 1 sq. m. In its natural state, sod-podzolic soils usually contain 1.5-2 percent of organic matter. Therefore, in order to bring it to 4-5 percent, 40-50 kg of peat per 1 sq. In the future, to maintain a constant composition on average per year, it will be necessary to apply only 0.2-0.3 kg per 1 sq. m.
On all soils, especially heavy and crumbling, where a dense crust forms after rains, peat gives good results as a mulch.
In combination with humus and sod land, peat is an excellent component of soils for greenhouses (in a ratio of 1: 1: 1 or 1: 1: 2 or 1: 1: 3). Recipes for such mixtures can be found in specialist literature.
candidate of agricultural sciences
In recent years, coconut substrate has become a very common means for preparing earth mixes, which is sold in all garden stores. Let's figure out what it is, what is its advantage and how to use it correctly.
It is made from the skin of a coconut, carefully crushed, to which coconut hairs and a fraction of coarser cut skin are added. All this makes the substrate air- and moisture-consuming. During the production process, the crushed skin is fermented, dried and then pressed.
Sometimes there are some additives in the composition of the coconut substrate, for example, peat. In any case, this material is suitable for all vegetable crops, its acidity is neutral, it does not contain dangerous bacteria and has the properties of ordinary soil. At the same time, it does not cake, a crust does not form on its surface, it easily lets air through, creating optimal conditions for the development of the root system. It has good thermal conductivity.
It has another indisputable advantage over other types of substrates: it can absorb and retain a sevenfold amount of moisture and, as necessary, gives it to plants.
The coconut substrate is on sale in the form of briquettes. After purchasing, such a briquette must be soaked in warm water in a large container (for example, in a basin). The amount of water should be approximately 1: 4 (1 part coconut and 4 parts water). After about 30 minutes, the dense briquette will turn into a loose substrate, significantly increasing in size. It must be mixed with your hands, making sure that there are no lumps left in the substrate.
To grow seedlings, coconut substrate must be mixed with various other ingredients.
For cucumbers, it is best to mix coconut with peat in equal amounts (1: 1), and for tomatoes instead of peat, it is more useful to take vermiculite and mix with coconut - take 1 part of vermiculite for 3 parts of fiber. The substrates must be thoroughly mixed and distributed in containers prepared for sowing seeds. Now you can start sowing.
Sowing seeds in coconut substrate is no different from the technology of sowing in ordinary soil - the same seeding depth. It is not necessary to water the substrate, as it has absorbed a sufficient amount of moisture, but you can sprinkle the surface with a solution of Epin or another stimulant.
After covering the seeds, the containers with the crops must be covered with foil or transparent lids and placed in a warm place for germination - at this time, day and night, the temperature should be at the same level. It is necessary to monitor the moisture content of the soil, if necessary, watering is best done through the pallet - in this case, moisture will flow directly to the root system of the seedlings.
In the future, when picking seedlings, you can also use a coconut substrate.
If, after growing seedlings, you have an unused substrate, it can be used for transplanting indoor plants. Alternatively, you can simply dry well and remove before the next use. You can simply take it to the garden and add it to the soil.
Do you use coconut substrate? Share your feedback with other gardeners in the comments.
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Fruit and berry and ornamental trees and shrubs are fed once or twice a season. Urea is applied along the entire projection of the crown, scattering over the surface before watering. When using organic fertilizers, the dose of urea is reduced by one third or even half. On average, 150 to 250 g are applied under an adult fruiting apple or pear, 100–140 g under a plum, 30–40 g under a currant.
Fertilizing vegetable crops with urea: when used dry - 5–20 g per 1 m².
Under cucumbers and peas make no more than 5-8 g / m² of dry urea,
For zucchini and squash make - 10-15 g / m² of urea,
Under tomatoes and peppers - up to 20 g / m² of urea.
For watering vegetable crops, you can prepare a solution: 20 g of carbamide per 10 liters of water. Watered at the rate of 1 liter of the finished solution per plant.
• excellent for germination of small and expensive seeds, as such nutritious humus provides very high seed germination
• provide an ideal opportunity for growing plants with a sensitive root system, since peat is a very friable and soft material, and it traumatizes roots less than any other soil
• since excess moisture is not adsorbed by peat pellets, the moisture content of the root system is naturally regulated, which ensures that there is no risk of rotting
• feeding is not required at an early stage, which means that it is simply impossible to burn a young and delicate plant with fertilizers
• the porous structure of peat provides aeration of the root system, which also affects its good development
• it is very convenient and safe to transplant plants into open ground, as this does not damage the roots at all, since the mesh protects the peat cylinder from destruction and helps to maintain its shape.
I think everyone who has been and is engaged in gardening, or at least indoor plants, knows that peat is a very necessary and useful thing. After all, peat is part of various soil mixtures, practically, as an indispensable component. But not every gardener knows what it is for in these mixtures and how it works. Many people believe that peat is a fertilizer, and believing that there is never enough peat, they apply it always and everywhere. Do you need it? Let's figure it out.
Peat - what happens and how to use it?
How to store peat for soil improvement?
How to store toilet peat?
Can peat be stored outdoors?
How long does peat retain its properties?
Today peat as an organic fertilizer as a top dressing is increasingly preferred by gardeners. Peat is used as top dressing to improve soil structure, increase soil fertility. In caravans in open areas, long-term storage of peat is carried out at an air temperature not higher than 40 ° C. The place where the caravan was laid should be thoroughly cleaned of the remains of old peat.
It is better to buy peat products during the summer months. In closed warehouses or in open areas, it is allowed to store peat to improve the soil. The process of involuntary self-heating of peat can begin if this fertilizer is boiled, forming a pile of peat products. It is more correct to store peat products in packed form - in blocks or bales. Keep peat in closed plastic bags without drying out.
Today biounitases are installed right in the room. At the same time, there is no need for constant removal of waste, since fillers for peat toilets are capable of reliably removing the smell. How to store peat? Be sure to keep such a filler tightly closed in a dry, warm room.
What is peat? This is not a fertilizer in its pure form and not soil, as some believe, it is a mineral.
For thousands of years, dead plant and animal remains have accumulated at the bottom of the swamps. They constantly layered on top of each other - and the result was a compressed layer. In the absence of air and under the influence of a high level of humidity, its contents decomposed more and more - this is how peat turned out. The formation of this mineral is still going on.
Depending on the degree of decomposition, peat is divided into three types:
Different types of minerals differ from each other not only in the level of decomposition, but also in their properties. Let's name the most important for gardeners:
When using peat in the garden, these characteristics are extremely important, because can have either a positive or negative impact on planting.