Gardeners who are passionate about gardening love to surprise guests with exotic wonders grown with their own hands. The type of black currant bushes of the Yadrenaya variety, densely hung with clusters of berries, similar to grape bunches, cause amazement and delight. Knowing the characteristics of the variety and following the rules for caring for this plant, the varietal characteristics of Yadrenaya can be preserved for many years.
The variety of black currant Yadrenaya was bred at the Research Institute of Horticulture in Siberia. In 2000 it was included in the State Register. The bush is low, spreading, sparse, low-leafed. Ripening is medium late. The berries are large (average weight - 3 g), oblong, of the same size. The skin is thick, the flesh is dense, fleshy, the taste is sour-sweet. The fruits are collected in long clusters of 6–12 berries. They ripen at the same time, and the ripe ones do not crumble. The separation of berries is dry.
The variety is self-fertile, that is, no additional pollinators are required.
The peel of the berries of the currant Vigorous is thick, the flesh is dense, fleshy, the taste is sour-sweet
Correct planting guarantees further healthy development and formation of the Yadrenaya bush. The optimal time for this is autumn from mid-September to the end of October. But you can plant black currants in early spring before bud break.
You need to choose a place for currants that is sunny, protected from the wind.
A developed root system is the key to the health of the bush
A currant seedling is placed obliquely in the hole
After planting, the seedling will be watered abundantly
Currant care consists in watering, feeding, proper pruning, prevention of diseases and pests.
After a year, out of the grown zero shoots that appear from the buds left underground, you need to choose 3-4 of the strongest ones. Remove the rest below the soil level (without hemp). Shorten the lateral branches that have grown over the summer, leaving three buds on each. The same technique is required to be applied for the next fall.
In no case should you thicken the bushes. Every year, 2-4 strong shoots are selected from the new shoots that have grown, the rest are removed. The best harvest is formed on young branches that are no more than 4 years old. Older ones are cut at the base. The Viper bush should consist of 8-10 branches.
When thickened, the yield drops, the fruits become smaller, become sour.
Black currants do not feel well if the near-trunk circle is overgrown with weeds. Every spring, after the snow melts, it is useful to water the soil under the bushes abundantly and cover it with black and white newspapers in several layers or cardboard. Pour a thick layer of mulch on top of them: chopped grass from a lawn mower, straw, hay, rotted sawdust of deciduous trees, peat, humus from the straw bedding of pets are suitable. While the paper and cardboard are not decomposed, they will help trap moisture under the bush. Such mulch will also delay the release of harmful insects that winter in the upper soil layer.
Cherry currant can grow in heat and drought, but it needs watering. There are several periods in the development of a bush when the plant needs water most of all:
Pour 3-4 buckets of water under one bush. There are several ways of watering:
Black currants can be watered by sprinkling
At the dacha, Yadrenaya can be successfully grown without using chemical fertilizers, but limited to organic farming and folk remedies for currant care.
Currants love starch, so potato peelings will be a good fertilizer for it.
For the winter, currants are not covered, they are not afraid of frost. But if the bush is not closed from the cold wind, its branches can be damaged from desiccation. You can protect the plant from damage by covering the bush with snow.
Kernel currant is a little susceptible to diseases. But it has insufficient resistance to some of the pathogens.
|Disease||Description and nature of the lesions||Control measures||Frequency of processing||Prophylaxis|
|Powdery mildew||This disease in currant varieties Yadrenaya manifests itself only in a very damp summer. The leaves at the ends of the branches are covered with a white bloom, which gradually darkens.||Trimming damaged ends.||As the disease arises.|
|Anthracnose||The fungus attacks old leaves, which are first covered with brownish-brown spots. The leaves dry out quickly and fly around. The period of plant development is shortened by 2–2.5 months. The bush does not have time to prepare for winter, it weakens, the berries become smaller, the yield drops. In addition to leaves, cuttings, young shoots, stalks of berries, fruits can also be damaged. Spores of the fungus persist in fallen infected foliage.|
|Pest||Description of the pest and the nature of the lesion||The most dangerous period||Control measures||Prophylaxis|
|Currant glass||A small butterfly with transparent wings. It bites through the bark into the stem and lays eggs. The larvae hatching from them gnaw out the core. The branch withers and dries up.||10-15 days after flowering currants.|
|Sprout aphid||Small transparent green insects. Aphids reproduce at the ends of young shoots, sucking juices from the plant.||After blooming leaves.|
|Currant fire||It hibernates in the form of a pupa on the ground under the bushes, and in the spring, turning into a butterfly, lays eggs directly in flowers. The larvae eat ovaries and berries. Outwardly diseased berries differ in that they are entwined with cobwebs.||From early spring.|
With proper care in mid-July, the Yadrenaya bushes will be rewarded with a bountiful harvest. If you do not rush to harvest and let the already ripe fruits hang on the branches for another five days, then they will become sweeter and more aromatic. It is best to do it from the kernel for the winter: grind with sugar, prepare compotes and fillings for baking. You can just freeze. After thawing, its taste only improves.
Kernels make good preparations for the winter.
The unpretentious Kernel currant is grown in many regions of Russia. It is fruitful, picking berries is comfortable and fast. However, the variety produces the largest number of large fruits in the regions of Siberia.
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When preparing for planting Cumberland raspberries, one should take into account the peculiarities of the structure and development of the plant:
The Cumberland chokeberry is planted in the fall (September - October) or in the spring after the snow melts. When determining the timing of planting, one should be guided by the air temperature (not less than +12 ° C) and the condition of the soil (the earth is loose, the shovel easily and freely enters the ground).
Sometimes seedlings planted during the summer season take root. In this case, shade the raspberries and provide them with moderate daily watering (up to 5 liters of water).
Raspberry bred in the lowlands. Loose loamy soils with weak acidity fully provide the bushes with nutrients. Chamomile, clover, field bindweed, coltsfoot can be used as indicators.
Raspberry Cumberland does not like wetlands. Deep (from 2 m) groundwater penetration will ensure the formation of a healthy and strong root system.
Raspberry trees should be placed in sunny areas. Ideally, if the sunlight hits the garden in the afternoon. Constant air access will prevent berries from rotting and soil heating. It is best to plant single raspberry bushes or beds under the walls of utility buildings, along fences. Walls and shelters will protect the flexible shoots of Cumberland raspberries from gusts of wind and heavy rain.
You should not place black raspberry bushes in areas where solanaceous vegetables (tomatoes, potatoes, eggplants) were previously grown. Undesirable neighbors for her are bushes of blackberries and red raspberries.
The area where the planting of raspberries is planned must be cleared of weeds in advance. If necessary, the future bed is dug up to remove weeds along with the roots.
If you are purchasing a plant with an open root system, make sure that it is not overdried.
Autumn is considered the best time to buy seedlings. By this time, most of the plants have lost their foliage and flaws and diseased seedlings can be seen. It is recommended to choose planting material in local nurseries or from familiar gardeners.
When transporting seedlings, it is necessary to wrap the roots with a damp cloth, wrapping it on top with plastic wrap or putting on a plastic bag. On the site, the seedling should be unwound and buried in a semi-horizontal position against the wall of the building or on the southern side of the site.
Healthy seedling criteria:
In the case of laying a raspberry bed, it is advisable to use a tape planting method.
The belt planting method is more laborious, but allows you to harvest a larger crop than from a bush planting
The American raspberry cultivar Cumberland is still a rarity in summer cottages and an infrequent guest in nurseries. But its indisputable merits encourage domestic gardeners to independently propagate and breed black raspberries in the plots. Practical gardeners use several methods for cultivating Cumberland raspberries:
In the fall, immediately after harvesting, seeds are sown to a depth of 2-3 cm, watered and mulched with sawdust or humus with a layer of 10-25 cm. In spring, 30-40% of seeds emerge, the rest may hatch next year.
Before spring sowing, raspberry seeds must go through a long process of stratification (180-200 days), which begins in winter. Cotton wool or calcined sand is used as a sterile substrate for seed stratification. Seeds are mixed with this substrate in the following ratio: 1 part of seeds and 3-4 parts of the substrate. The resulting mixture is moistened and placed in a glass container in a cellar, refrigerator or shed with a temperature of + 1 ... + 5 ° C. Every 10-15 days, the seeds with the substrate are moistened. By the time they are planted, they are usually germinated.
Stratification triggers embryonic sleep in seeds, after which, falling into warm soil, spring comes for the seed, and active germination is observed
Gardeners planted black currants of this variety both in the spring (until the leaf buds bloom) and in the fall (until mid-September). The landing time is not critical, but the second option has more adherents. Before the first frost, the seedling will have time to adapt to the new habitat. In the spring, the culture immediately begins to intensively build up the green mass, there is no strength left to strengthen and develop the root system.
In order for each Yadrenaya bush to receive enough nutrition from the soil, it is important to maintain the required distance between them.
The best place for planting Yadrenaya is where the ripening berries will be provided with warmth and sunlight, but light partial shade is acceptable. Ideally, from the north, the bushes should be covered by a building or other structure that protects them from harsh and cold drafts. In the shade and in the cold, the yield and taste of berries are significantly reduced.
The level of groundwater is important. If they come closer than 1–1.5 m to the surface, look for another area. When this is the only option, they fill a hill with a height of at least 50 cm or provide good drainage, filling the bottom of the planting pit with river sand, small ceramic shards, and brick chips. You need to create a layer at least 5-7 cm thick. The plant also does not like cold damp air, stagnant melt water in spring, so swampy lowlands are categorically not suitable.
The soil is desirable light, breathable, in which moisture does not stagnate, but moisture is retained. The best option is podzolic, gray earth, sandy loam soil.
Unlike most fruit and berry crops, Yadrenaya prefers slightly acidic soil. Ask in advance about the acidity of the soil in the selected place, if necessary, neutralize it by adding wood ash or dolomite flour (respectively 500 or 250 g / m²).
If there are several seedlings between plants, it is necessary to leave a gap of 1.75–2 m, and between rows of bushes - 2–2.5 m. So each plant will be able to adequately provide itself with moisture and nutrition from the soil. Too close "neighbors" are undesirable, they will take away the nutrients it needs from the currant.
The best predecessors for Yadrenaya are any vegetable or decorative flowering crops. Any other currants and gooseberries are undesirable. Pathogenic bacteria, fungal spores, and pest eggs accumulate in the soil. If possible, try to move the landings at least 0.75-1 m in any direction.
Choose an area well-warmed by the sun and install supports for adult bushes in a timely manner so that the berries do not get dirty with earth
The planting site is weeded and dug up, while removing stones, rhizomes, and other debris. The depth of the pit is about half a meter, the width is the same. They dig it up a couple of weeks before the planned landing. The less fertile the soil in the chosen place, the deeper the hole is made and the more humus is added to it.
The upper 15–20 cm of fertile soil is poured separately, adding to it 10–15 liters of rotted manure or humus, 90–100 g of superphosphate and 35 g of potassium nitrate. Another option is chemical fertilizers containing both potassium and phosphorus (ABA, Autumn, Nitrofoska). Unripe manure, fresh chicken droppings, nitrogen-containing fertilizers are not applied. The first two can simply burn fragile roots, the latter stimulates the intensive formation of a green mass, which in the fall prevents the seedling from properly preparing for winter. The plant has a negative attitude to chlorine in any form, therefore, potassium chloride, for example, is not suitable as a fertilizer.
The soil, mixed with fertilizers, is poured into the bottom of the planting pit in the form of a mound. Before planting, it is covered with slate or some other waterproof material.
If you buy a seedling in a pot or in a tub and place an entire earthen ball in the planting hole, the stress for the plant will significantly decrease.
12-15 hours before planting, the roots of the Yadrenaya seedling are dipped in a weak solution of potassium permanganate to disinfect, or in a solution of potassium humate, Epin, Topaz preparations to stimulate their growth. When 2-3 hours remain before the procedure, they are dipped in fresh cow dung with the addition of powdered clay (the finished mass resembles thick sour cream in consistency) and dried in the sun.
The landing itself looks like this:
The Yadrenaya sapling planted in the ground must be watered with heated water
A high yield directly depends on how the gardener carried out the planting of the seedling. This procedure is divided into several stages. Let's consider each of them in more detail.
The first step is to dig holes for the seedlings. They should be as follows: dimensions 60x60 cm, depth - 50 cm. We fall asleep by a third of earth with the addition of humus and ash. In the prepared soil, we make a hole, slightly larger than the root of the seedling.
Place the seedling in the hole so that it has a slope to the north at an angle of 45o. It is necessary that, after burying, the root collar of the seedling is 5-8 cm underground. We bury the planting hole, and slightly tamp the soil around the trunk. Then we form an earthen roller around, water the plantings and mulch with peat, compost or humus.
Many gardeners, saving territory, plant only a single Van Tets bush. But as practice shows, such "saving" is unprofitable, because the yield, despite leaving, will be low. It would be optimal to plant 3-4 bushes of the described hybrid and a couple more bushes of another variety of red currants.
Everything depends on this: how the bushes will grow correctly, how they will develop further and even the harvest. The first step is to pay attention to the roots - they must be developed and not dry. Damage is not permissible neither on the roots nor on the upper part. Only partial bark exfoliation is allowed.
Seedlings with mechanical damage, mold spots or rot are immediately discarded. Also, do not purchase seedlings below 40 cm.
Find out what to do with white bloom on currant leaves by the link.
It would be optimal to plant Jonker Van Tets in loam or sandy loam soils with an acidity index of 6-6.5 pH. If the soil is more acidic, then it is necessary to neutralize it. To do this, we bring 300-400 grams into the ground. powdered limestone. Can be replaced with 200-300 grams of slaked lime. The quantity is chosen for one square of land. In such conditions, the soils of Versailles are also grown.
The soil must be prepared before planting. The main part of the roots of red currants is located at a depth of 40 cm, so the soil must be loosened to a depth of 50 cm.
After the procedure, the fertile soil layer is fertilized - the following is applied to the square of the earth: compost (rotted manure) - 8 kg of superphosphate - 100 g of potassium sulfate - 80 g.
Before planting, the soil will settle somewhat, which will allow the fertilizer to penetrate to the required depth.
If the planting is in autumn, then the soil is prepared in two months, in the spring - at least two weeks.
It should be one and a half meters. At close range, plantings will thicken. If it is large, then pollination will decrease. Both of these lead to a decrease in yield. Therefore, it is important to try to maintain the specified distance.
For all the unpretentiousness for planting, Jonker Van Tets prefers highlands well-lit by the sun. Lack of light will affect the taste of the fruit - it will be more acidic. Light and heat stimulate the formation of sugar in the pulp.
The plant is very sensitive to cold northerly winds, so experts recommend planting it on the south side of buildings.
Pay attention to the groundwater level at the site, ideally it should be more than two meters away. With a smaller distance at the bottom of the landing pits, drainage will be required.
Also, the described variety, like the black currant Yadrenaya, does not like stagnation of water at the planting site.
Red currants are never planted next to black or other berry bushes that produce root growth. From berry bushes, it perfectly coexists with gooseberries.
Vegetables and greens will be excellent neighbors for her - in general, any culture whose roots do not go deep.
If onions or garlic are red neighbors, then they will be able to protect the currants from most pests.
These are standard procedures, as for rose currants, and include feeding, pruning and watering.
Jonker Van Tets is fed three times per season. The first consists of 15-20 grams of granular urea, which is applied to the soil at the end of April.
The second top dressing in mid-June consists of a manure solution, which must be watered at the rate of 1:10. It can be replaced with mineral fertilizers: superphosphate - 20 g, potassium sulfate - 15 g, urea - 15 g. Dissolve all this in 10 liters of water.
The third feeding is done in the first week of October, when the underbarrel circle is being dug up. At this time, up to 10 kg of rotted manure or compost is added to the soil with the addition of 100 g of superphosphate and 50 g of potassium chloride.
We recommend that you read about how to deal with aphids on currants in this material.
Scheduled pruning is carried out one year after planting the seedlings. They are cut exactly in half, thereby giving the bush a rounded compact shape.
Leave upright shoots, and all the rest of the growth lying on the ground or intertwined with each other must be removed.
Sanitary pruning is also carried out annually. It is performed in the fall, when the plant begins a dormant period. Sick, dry, broken off, improperly growing shoots are pruned.
The variety has a powerful root system that allows it to survive prolonged droughts. But lack of water reduces plant growth and crop quality.
Active watering will be required in early June, during the growing season and in early August, before retirement.
We pour water not under the root, but into a special groove, which we break through at a distance of 30-40 cm from the bush. The amount of water should be enough to moisten the soil to a depth of 40 cm. Watering is carried out in the evening or in the morning.
I would like to make a reservation right away that the most popular hybrid of currants and gooseberries "Yoshta" is one of my favorite berries. I like it even more than gooseberry, as it has a minimum of acid and a very pleasant taste. But Yoshta is not the only hybrid of these plants.
There is another "impostor" on the market without the exact name of the variety, which is sold under the name "currant-gooseberry hybrid". I got this strange plant thanks to the dishonesty of the seller of seedlings. He sold a similar bush as a sort of thornless gooseberry with the fictitious name "Honey".
There is a hybrid of currants and gooseberries on the market without the exact name of the variety, which is sold under the name "currant-gooseberry hybrid".
In the first year after planting, the plant made me very happy with its unusually powerful growth, and in one season the branch turned into a lush and powerful tall bush. The next year, I waited for fruiting and noted a scanty harvest, especially with regard to such a vegetative power of the bush - literally a few berries.
I waited for ripening for a very long time, compared to other varieties of currants and gooseberries, but as long as I did not approach the bush, the berries remained "oak". For the sake of experiment, I even tried one hard berry, but because of the acid, it was impossible to eat it.
When I finally waited for full ripeness, the result did not please me - the acidity without the slightest hint of sweetness, the size of a large currant, the color is the same dark, the shape of some berries is round and others are slightly elongated. I also want to note that this strange hybrid was distinguished for me by the ability to attract a lot of pests.
Of course, such a curiosity was removed from the site after the first harvest. The second time I came across this "miracle of selection" at the dacha of my mother-in-law. They sold the plant exactly as a currant-gooseberry hybrid without specifying the variety, and the same picture - a powerful bush, a handful of sour berries and leaves affected by pests.
Probably, we will never know who was the author of this unsuccessful cultivar, but it is absolutely certain that unscrupulous sellers liked it - fast growth, excellent presentation and the opportunity to get a lot of planting material. Subsequently, it can be passed off as anything - even for currants, even for gooseberries, even for their hybrid. Be careful and do not buy seedlings in the markets, because this plant is distributed there. This berry has no advantages at all.
Gardeners in general are generally happy with the Bagheera blackcurrant variety, although it can show itself in different ways in different conditions.
Yaroslav, 55 years old, Pskov region
Bagheera currant belongs to relatively old varieties of Soviet selection. I myself brought it back at the end of the eighties directly from a nursery located in Michurinsk, together with several other varieties of currants - Black Pearl, Green Haze and Constellation. I consider all varieties worthy for cultivation on a personal plot. They perfectly stood the test of time, during all this time they showed themselves from the best side. I would especially like to emphasize Bagira's high self-fertility, its early maturity, dry separation and the formation of bundle ovaries. I think the only drawback is its susceptibility to being hit by a tick - but with this beast it is quite possible to make war, there are things that are even more terrible.
Oksana, 39 years old, Moscow region
I grew Bagira for several years, but then I decided to give it up. The berry was quite large, but there are varieties that are much larger. The taste, of course, was not bad, but the yield was average. About 7-8 berries ripened in a bunch. Showed instability to kidney mites, had to be treated several times in the spring with special preparations. Powdery mildew fell ill only in a very rainy summer, so we can say that the resistance is average. But, perhaps, in other conditions it will behave differently.
Alexandra, 49 years old, Ufa
I am very pleased with my Bagheera, she did not disappoint me. The bush, with good care, gives stable and high yields. The berry is large and very tasty - you can eat it straight from the bush. Even in dry seasons, when I did not have enough strength to do additional watering, it gave good yields. True, I have never noticed bunched ovaries near my bushes. But how elegant they look in the fall, when all the foliage from other bushes and trees has long flown around, and they are beautiful, with green foliage and very decorate the site.
When compiling the article, materials from the sites were used: