In the thickets of grapes. These plants were planted in 1949
The title of this article contains one of the ten biblical commandments. In this case, we want to remind it to those sellers who, without conscience, sell seedlings and seeds of southern origin to our gardeners, which in our climate will clearly not please with the harvest.
The import of varieties of southern origin thousands of kilometers to the north is absolutely unjustified, senseless and dangerous. As many years of practice, including mine, show, such plants will not have time to go through all the phases of their development. Ultimately they will die, leaving behind spores or larvae of dangerous plant pathogens or pests... In addition, there have already been numerous examples of such experiments. For example, in 1930-1950, vineyards were laid on significant areas in the Moscow region, with such varieties as Madeleine Angevin and Malengr early. All of them gradually perished.
Another example. From 1968 to the 80s of the last century, according to my observations, out of seventy varieties and forms of grapes of various origins, only a few representatives of the European-Amur hybrids, mainly of the first generation, remained on the territory of our Botanical Garden. According to my data, even first-generation hybrids, such as Vinny 3, do not have time to go through the organic dormancy phase, and natural inhibitors necessary for the dormancy and subsequent hardening of plants do not accumulate in the shoots and eyes in the autumn period.
The only representative that, under our conditions, manages to go through all the phases of development - from sap flow to entering the phase of rest and natural leaf fall - is Amur grapes.
This is the kind of grape that grows in St. Petersburg at the Forestry Academy. Planted 1923
There, on the territory, there are also introduced species (introduction - resettlement of plants outside their natural range to new habitats for them - ed.) Of southern origin, such as walnut and gray walnut, catalpa and gleditsia, ginkgo biloba and even cherry laurel, which for tens of years are able to grow and develop in these conditions. Nevertheless, even under such conditions, after a relatively short period (several tens of years), such introduced species die due to insufficient heat supply during the growing season.
This also applies to grapes, with the exception of the Amur grape and some hybrids of the first generation. That is why in our botanical gardens there are very old specimens of this species, which grow without any shelter, starting from the 19th century. All other species, ever introduced even from the harshest places in their natural range, in severe winters and cold summers, such as in 1976, suffered from a lack of heat.
These include: Coastal grapes, Fox grapes, Frost-hardy grapes, Sakhalin (Japanese) grapes and even some forms of Amur grapes, obtained from the southern parts of their natural range. My many years of experimentsSince 1967, the testing of some varieties and forms of grapes of various origins, and there were about two hundred of them, also indicate that only Amur grapes in our conditions are able to successfully pass all phases of development from sap flow and budding to natural leaf fall.
Artificial methods of raising the sum of active temperatures - covering with film or glass, planting near the walls of buildings and others, undoubtedly increase the lifespan of grapes. However, even in such relatively southern zones of northern viticulture, which is the south of Belarus, the city of Pinsk, where the stronghold of viticulture is located, according to its head Anna Vladimirovna But-Gusaim, various complex interspecific hybrids of the Rapture type over the course of several years due to lack of heat gradually perish.
One of the Far Eastern grape varieties
I have already written that in the post-perestroika years, a huge amount of all kinds of poor-quality planting material is brought for sale to the agricultural markets of St. Petersburg, Moscow and other cities. This applies not only to grapes, but to a number of other fruit and ornamental crops. Dear readers, they don’t think about your future harvest. They are only interested in profit.
Let me give you a concrete example. While walking through an agricultural exhibition at Lenexpo, I approached a man who was selling grafted grape seedlings with beautiful deep-cut leaves. When I asked what sort it was, he answered, “Northern” without batting an eye. To my second question - what is it grafted on, the seller replied that the seedlings are own-rooted. Then I showed him the place of inoculation and told him how the "Severny" variety actually looks like.
The seller immediately turned around and disappeared without even saying goodbye. Another lady with a Little Russian dialect was selling Isabella grapes. When I asked whether it will mature in our St. Petersburg, she said with confidence that every year she collects it in buckets in our Leningrad region. As they say, no comment.
I also observed the following picture: a group of young people sold seedlings grown from green cuttings at the end of September. To my question, how to plant them and at what time, the sellers boldly and confidently told that they should be planted directly in the open ground. And only after I approached the seller with claims that these seedlings would die already during the first minor October frosts, he agreed and even got a little embarrassed ...
I also remember a case when apple and pear seedlings with two-meter one-year shoots were sold from the car at the end of May, and natural “samples” (and not dummies) with the inscription Tonkovotka and Melba hung on the side of the car. Any more or less educated gardener knows that the fruits of the Tonkovotka pear and Melba apple trees (and of fantastically large sizes) will not last until May. Moreover, their size is very modest.
And an annual seedling grown in our area will have shoots no more than half a meter. Of course, these scammers obviously brought seedlings from somewhere from Moldova, hanging the fruits of southern late-ripening varieties on the side. In response to my complaints, they simply asked not to interfere with the trading process and leave. There are a lot of similar examples. I am already beginning to doubt whether there are bona fide sellers in our markets and exhibitions?
Amur grapes. Old Peterhof
I already wrote several years ago in some agricultural publications about this category of traders. They are distinguished by extreme arrogance, impudence and deceit, coupled with aggressiveness, when they offer an ignorant and gullible buyer, among whom there are many elderly people with low incomes, planting material brought, as a rule, from regions infected with dangerous quarantine pests and grape diseases.
Such material, as a rule, dies after the first wintering - this is at best, and at worst, grapes can winter for two or three years, while infecting healthy plants. As a rule, traders sell seedlings grafted onto phylloxera-resistant rootstocks, which are strictly prohibited not only for sale, but also for transportation. It is very easy to add the root form of phylloxera (phylloxera is a genus of insects from the aphid family, one species of which, imported from America, causes devastation to vineyards everywhere - ed.) Is very easy with rooted seedlings, and the leaf form - with cuttings of American hybrids.
For this reason, the import of any such planting material is prohibited! What do we see in reality? They are transported in huge consignments in trucks, vans, breaking the law, often bribing workers of quarantine services. For example, a huge amount of planting material (with soil), not only grapes, but also fruit and ornamental crops from Western Europe is imported into St. Petersburg every year, which is strictly prohibited by law!
As a result, over the past ten years, we have introduced a lot of all kinds of harmful organisms into the territory of our country, which we did not have before. According to some reports, more than 150 alien species of pests were introduced. And the method of fighting infections and pests is basically the same: chemical treatment using highly toxic pesticides, many of which cause cancer.
Grapes, grade Aleshenkin
This category of sellers of grape planting material is sometimes more dangerous due to the fact that they often know what they are doing. They have invented many tricks aimed at getting the gardener to buy cuttings or seedlings from them. The most common methods of deception are as follows. The seller assures you, for example, that all the material is treated with special preparations that completely kill the pest or infection.
But the processing may be of poor quality, or maybe it was simply not done (how will you check?). In addition, fungal spores or pest larvae can tolerate such treatments. That is why, probably, over the past 5-10 years, grape diseases such as mildew and powdery mildew have long become common in Belarus and the Moscow region. The law is the same for everyone - the import of planting material from a zone infected by quarantine pests is strictly prohibited.
Some seasoned growers, in order to make good publicity for their variety and sell it at a higher price, begin to argue that this variety matures annually and gives high yields in the open field. In fact, such sellers are often cunning and grow their material. in greenhouses or, for some time, the plants are covered with a film, and the yield is very modest. This happens all the time, and, alas, this is far from a new trick.
You need to know that the most dangerous quarantine pest of grapevine - phylloxera is now widespread in almost all zones of industrial viticulture: and this is all of Ukraine, the Rostov region with the city of Novocherkassk, where the All-Russian Research Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking is located, where it was brought by the employees themselves (according to L. P. Potapenko) back in the distant 70s. And it was almost impossible to get even cuttings from there. However, both in Ukraine and in the Rostov region, as well as in the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories, there are vineyards, from where in huge batches the seedlings are transported to zones that were free (once) from the pest.
As you know, money doesn't smell! Moreover, it seems to me that some professional growers do this specifically in order to subsequently start a new business for the production of already grafted planting material. What difference does it make to them whether you have phylloxera or not.
Grapes, grade Delight
Another duck was launched by a "group of enthusiasts" on our local TV. They voiced a commercial where they widely advertised varieties supposedly suitable for cultivation in the Leningrad region, including for cultivation in the open field. Among them, the Agat Donskoy variety was named. I remember that with sadness I looked at my grapes of the same variety, which in a film greenhouse hardly ripened by mid-October. I cannot understand this lie.
Moreover, it seems that these people are trying to deceive themselves. Yes, Agat Donskoy will ripen in the open field once every ten years, and then on condition that before that there will be at least a couple of warm years for laying fruit buds. I can admit that Agat Donskoy, as well as Russian Korinka, will grow somewhere on the shores of Lake Ladoga, but in the form of perennial grass, which will freeze over chronically immature vines every year.
But for how long is such an unfortunate plant possible? A year, two, three, more? There can be no question of productivity here at all. These are the hucksters who are most harmful to our brother, the gardener. And such examples, I think, can be cited indefinitely ... Alas!
Evgeny Kislin, candidate of biological sciences,
researcher at VIR, curator of the grape collection
For some reason, my neighbors at the dacha, looking at what plums, cherry plums, apples have grown, try to find out what kind of variety. When they find out, they say: "Well, buy us such a seedling." Everyone is trying to plant seedlings. Meanwhile, many crops can be grown by cuttings. It is not even necessary to know the variety: you liked the fruits - cut the cuttings, dipped them into a stimulant - and plant them.
True, you may not like fruit trees grown from cuttings. Since they are not grafted onto a medium-sized or dwarf stock, they grow into giants and begin to bear fruit late. But berry crops can easily be cuttings even without the use of stimulants.
What can be drawn
Japanese quince, or chaenomeles: cuttings are planted both in early spring and in autumn. Some people dislike cuttings and propagate Japanese quince with shoots that appear at a distance of about 1 m from the bush. Meanwhile, this is grafting, since the quince has only one root system for the entire bush and shoots. This is not scary, since planted, such cuttings root perfectly and turn into full-fledged bushes in the second or third year.
Actinidia - while an infrequent visitor to the sites, especially large-fruited forms. Meanwhile, a serious selection of this culture is underway in Ukraine. Actinidia cuttings should be rooted on the windowsill, watered once a week and covered with sand on top of the soil. It's safer this way.
When working with cuttings of actinidia, it is important to remember that not all varieties have a dense bark structure, some (for example, Jenny's variety) have a pliable bark that can peel off the trunk and the cutting will die. The best survival rate is observed in female plants of unisexual varieties.
Jasmine, or chubushnik it is a sin not to grow by cuttings. It takes root well and can bloom right in the first spring. Even stimulants are not needed. If large lateral shoots are rooted, they can stand for a year without foliage, growing roots, only then they release foliage. To facilitate their work, when planting, the aerial part is cut off at a height of 30-40 cm.
Blueberry. You can even plant blueberry branches that are accidentally broken in spring. You just need to water the cuttings all the time. A slight drought can have a detrimental effect on the cuttings ... If you barely keep track, the plants will throw off all the leaves. Therefore, the trunks must be mulched.
Honeysuckle unpretentious and tenacious, rooted even by two-, three-year-old cuttings. If you are planting an adult twig, then the small branches must be removed. Rooting is best done in an openwork shade. The branch must be buried so that the shoots, after rooting, appear from the ground.
Large-fruited blackberry now in high esteem, gardeners buy seedlings, giving thousands of rubles. Meanwhile, it is not at all difficult to root it with any one-year-old cuttings. It must be planted at an angle of 45 °, leaving two buds above the surface. All that remains is to water and weed out. Blackberries are very tenacious and will definitely take root.
Sakura. We have a sakura bush growing on one abandoned area. It blooms - a dump of the head, everyone who sees it is trying to dig out the layers. But that was not the case: the holes were dug, as at a large construction site, but the seedlings were never dug - the roots go too deeply, and at the surface there is only a korneshtamb, naked, without roots.
Meanwhile, it is very easy to root it by cuttings. If they knew, they would have multiplied this guest from Japan without any problems. It is enough to cut off one-two-year-old branches and plant them to a depth of 10-15 cm.Then pour over with Kornevin's solution, and then with clean water. It is important for the first time to ensure the shading of the plants until the roots grow.
Sakura cuttings can bloom right in the year of planting.
The authorities periodically remind residents of apartments in multi-storey buildings that they are responsible not only for themselves and their loved ones: the safety of neighbors also depends on them.
Therefore, the new Fire Safety Regulations, which will be introduced next year (Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of September 16, 2020, No. 1479), contain many points dedicated to additional obligations and prohibitions for residents of high-rise buildings.
Failure to comply with these rules entails, at least, administrative liability (a fine from 2 to 5 thousand rubles - Article 20.4 of the Administrative Code of the Russian Federation), if serious consequences do not occur (Article 219 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation). Let us examine what the residents of the apartments will soon need to observe.
1. It is forbidden to store furniture and other items not only in attics and technical floors, as underground and basement floors have now been added to this list.
Therefore, the arrangement of a cellar for storing food on the balcony or loggia of an apartment on the ground floor is not allowed for one more reason (besides the fact that this is an illegal redevelopment, it is also a violation of fire safety rules).
2. It is not allowed to install blind (that is, non-opening) gratings on windows and pits for basement windows if they are emergency exits.
There are no direct indications in the Rules regarding the grilles on the windows of the first floor. However, firefighters' claims to the bars on such windows are not at all excluded if, according to the approved evacuation plan, they are designated as "emergency exit"
3. In addition to the general prohibition on glazing balconies leading to smoke-free staircases, a separate prohibition has been added to close such balconies with blinds.
Furniture and other things must not be stored on staircases and vestibules, near evacuation hatches on balconies and loggias.
Separately, it is now stipulated that on staircases, in floor corridors, as well as on open passages of the outer air zones of staircases, it is impossible to place external air conditioners.
4. The rules for using gas appliances in everyday life have been adjusted.
It is clarified that the ban on operation applies not only to faulty gas equipment (stove, water heater, etc.), but also to all equipment that has not undergone maintenance (the same thing that is now required to carry out gas services and for which apartment owners separate invoices annually).
In other words, without another act on the maintenance of the gas stove, apartment residents can be fined for using it.
But on the other hand, they removed the threat of a fine from the owners of built-in household appliances - hobs and ovens: the ban on placing furniture closer than 20 cm from gas appliances will no longer apply to them (since there is no technical possibility to fulfill this requirement).
5. A separate ban is introduced on parking cars near the house, if at the same time the place of outlet to the facade of pipes for fire fighting equipment is closed or the car is standing on the cover of the fire hydrant well.
6. The rules on smoking on the balcony have significantly expanded compared to the previous version.
Last year, a clause prohibiting the use of open fires on balconies and loggias of apartments was included in the Fire Regulations. This caused a lot of controversy over whether fans of blowing tobacco smoke on the balcony can now be fined. Now doubts have disappeared. One more point has been added to this point in the new Rules: it is forbidden to leave sources of open fire unattended in buildings where people live.
And among such sources are directly indicated an unextinguished cigarette, candles and a kerosene lamp. Thus, there was another reason to fine those who like "unhealthy" lifestyles.
PhD in Law
The planting material of euonymus is very diverse: rooted cuttings, root suckers, bush cuttings. The best planting material is 3-5-year-old bushes, which are sold with a closed root system (in a container). They can be planted from spring to autumn. Euonymus is a light-loving plant, so find a sunny place for it in advance. The seedling easily tolerates planting and quickly starts growing.
We live in the internet age. He penetrated into all areas of our life. Already, the seedlings began to be bought through online stores. In particular, there are many agricultural firms and nurseries specializing in the sale of seedlings over the Internet. Even exotic plants are offered for gardeners, planting which, the promised beauty or fruits cannot be obtained. The inexperience of the buyer and the negligence of the seller are to blame for this.
The most common online shopping problems
1. Money has been spent but the package has not been received. This happens when you are offered seedlings at a very low price. As the saying goes, free cheese is only in a mousetrap.
Very often fraudsters, having received money, disconnect the means of communication and do not send anything. So don't buy a lot at once. Make a minimum order first. And then, when you are sure that the seller is responsible, buy in earnest.
It is useful to check contact numbers before purchasing. Do the nursery staff answer them? Ask the manager about the features of the varieties you like. A competent person or a reseller can be seen immediately.
Study the photos carefully. It is good if they are made by a gardener in his nursery, it is even better if the gardener shows his face in the photo with his seedlings. But if the photos were taken using Photoshop by a professional, then the seller must be checked.
If, during a conversation or correspondence, the seller tells you about the peculiarities of the variety, tells you thoroughly about agricultural technology, then feel free to buy. Experts and experienced gardeners are always happy to share their experience.
2. Goods received - the result is poor
The seedlings must be alive. That is, the kidneys are green on the cut, the bark is not wrinkled, but smooth and elastic. It is best if the seedlings are with an open root system. Rather, they are packed in moss or burlap and wrapped in a film or plastic bag.
Why are they better than seedlings with a clod of earth? These plants are probably grown outdoors, hardened, and are more adaptable to the harsh outdoor conditions than containerized seedlings from greenhouses.
Lack of seedlings with an open root system - their roots are severely damaged. Therefore, they must be planted as quickly as possible. So that the roots have time to grab onto the soil, and the buds are still asleep. Also, such trees are shortened by 1/3 and even up to half the height of the seedlings.
But what you don't need to worry about is the safety of the roots. The right companies pack them in hydrogel and peat or sphagnum moss, even wet sawdust will do. In this form, seedlings can be stored for a week or even more.
Of course, mail order seedlings will be smaller than those sold in the market. But I would not chase the size, if only the roots were alive and developed, and the tops would grow quickly.
It is important to buy seedlings while they are dormant. That is, in winter or autumn, but in the spring it is already risky. By the way, in my opinion, small nurseries work better with clients. At large agricultural firms, everything is put on stream and often employees are irresponsible in their approach to packaging. In small nurseries, the owners themselves are engaged in packaging and are directly interested in ensuring that their plants reach the addressee alive and healthy.
And one last thing: don't skimp on shipping. The faster the goods arrive, the less it will suffer in the process.
Online shopping is fast and convenient, and even prices are starting to approach retail in the market. But do not forget that you are buying a live plant, and therefore the "shopping season" is short. Just a couple of months ...
Take on everything at once
No need to run to the store and buy everything. “We had 2 shovels, 75 pots of seedlings, 5 types of fertilizers and a whole sea of different bags of seeds: tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers and so on.”
In order not to spend extra money on unnecessary purchases, use a clear plan of what you want to plant. Find out what grows well at your latitudes at this time. Tomatoes, carrots and potatoes love the sun. Cucumbers and beans do great in the shade.
Seedling planting time
Each region has its own way. In the south, at the end of March, you can plant onions, green peas, a little later, potatoes. Planting seedlings in the ground is carried out in early May. Naturally, the ground should already be warmed up. Therefore, any abnormal temperature shifts can disrupt the summer resident's plans.
When is everything in place?
A post shared by Dacha Ideas (@dacha_idei_) on Mar 29, 2020 at 8:19 pm PDT
In this case, you will have to cover the plants with plastic oilcloth or glass jars at night, but this is only half-measures.
Country plants very sensitive to quality watering. For example, underfilling is terrible for eggplants, peppers and tomatoes. From it, the root system develops poorly in crops, the foliage turns yellow and withers, there are no full-fledged ovaries. Cucumbers become bitter. On the other hand, overflowing leads to the appearance of fungus and rotting of the roots.
A post shared by Diana Barsuk (@dinkabarsuk) on Sep 14, 2019 at 2:37 am PDT
Take a hoe and cut the soil around the plant. If it is dry below 4 cm, you need to water it. If not, they just loosened the soil.
Pests and sores
Spring gives a start to the awakening of not only useful plants, but also for various types of fungi. They also want to eat, which can nullify all the efforts of an inexperienced summer resident.
It is necessary to disinfect the beds before planting. A solution of potassium permanganate or copper sulfate is suitable for this. Be sure to also use wood ash. Even one pest noticed is already an alarm signal. In a few days, they can multiply to an unimaginable scale.
Sowing place of seeds
Sow seeds of the same crop in different locations each season. This is a prerequisite for a good harvest.
A post shared by Soul House (@ dacha.dlya.dushi) on Apr 2, 2020 at 7:25 pm PDT
The fact is that a plant for a year (season) draws out exactly those nutrients that it needs from the adjacent soil. Depletion of the soil leads to a fall in the yield. But changing the plant for another, with different "appetites", on the contrary, will give the best result.
Digging a site
Digging the soil on the site, as an important process for saturating the earth with air and destroying weeds, is nothing more than a myth! We repeat: this is an absolutely waste of time.
An infertile loamy layer rises from the lower layers. Thus, the procedure becomes not only useless, but even harmful.
A huge waste of energy
If you don’t like to work with the land after that incident in childhood, when under the scorching sun you were forced to carry heavy buckets of potatoes and were not allowed to just climb trees or look for bugs, we understand you perfectly.
But now that you are an adult, you can set your own pace of work yourself. Treat her like a hobby. Try when it comes to neatness, and do not strain too hard if you have to carry something or are just tired. Believe me, after a while you will not be dragged away from the garden, and the noise of the big city will seem to you only the annoying hum of a huge gas tractor forty years ago!
Our advice to summer residents Suitable for both beginners and experienced workers, hoes and shovels. The time is right now, the sun is warming, and the greenery is growing right before our eyes.
However, we want to emphasize: no, even the most abundant harvest is not worth your health. Wash your hands with soap, use an antiseptic, and follow the advice of your doctors. All the best to you and good luck!
One day before grafting, the cuttings must be brought into the room (if they were stored in frozen sawdust, a few days before).
How to determine if cuttings are viable and suitable for grafting? An ideal stalk looks like this: the bark is smooth, not wrinkled, the shoot is elastic when bent, the cut wood is green and fresh, the buds "sit" tightly on the shoot, and their scales look smooth.
Did your cuttings pass this test? Then it's time to learn all about tree grafting!