How to protect radishes from diseases and pests


Any gardener who grows radishes knows how often this vegetable can suffer from various diseases and pests. Fortunately, there are many tools available to deal with such problems.

Prevention of diseases and pests on radishes

There are a few simple rules that can be followed to help you keep your plants healthy:

  • Presowing seed treatment. Immediately remove all seeds with defects (holes, spots, etc.), and disinfect the good ones in potassium permanganate (1 g of powder / 1 l of water) for 20 minutes.
  • Compliance with crop rotation. Radish can be sown in its original place earlier than in 3-4 years. It is also worth considering the predecessors: it is undesirable to plant radish after cabbage, radish, turnip, rapeseed. But the place after potatoes, onions, legumes (beans, beans, peas), garlic and nightshades (peppers, tomatoes, eggplant) is fine.
  • Neighbors. Some gardeners plant marigolds, dill, coriander, tansy and calendula in radish beds, since the strong smell of these plants can scare off pests.
  • Correct care. The main activities include timely weeding and moderate watering when the topsoil dries out.

To scare off pests, you can plant odorous plants in a garden garden

Radish diseases and control measures

Since radishes can suffer from various diseases, you should know their main signs and control measures.

Keela

If the radish is affected by this disease, then spherical growths form on the roots below, then the roots begin to rot, and the plant dies off. The fungus is especially active on excessively moist and acidic soils.

If the radish is sick with keel, then growths appear on the root crops

Treatment is reduced to watering the soil around the radish with milk of lime (2 tablespoons of slaked lime per 10 liters of water). Severely affected plants should be dug up and destroyed.

For the purpose of prevention, timely deoxidize the soil by introducing slaked lime (250-300 g / m2), dolomite flour (350-400 g / m2), ash (250-300 g / m2). If this is not possible, then add a pinch of ash to each planting hole 3 days before sowing.

Mosaic

The main features of the radish mosaic include the appearance of yellowish spots on the leaves, which then darken, and the leaf itself is deformed and dies off.

Radish mosaic belongs to incurable diseases

This ailment is incurable, therefore diseased plants must be destroyed, and the place where they grew must be spilled with a strong solution of potassium permanganate (3-4 g of powder / 10 l of water).

The measures for the prevention of mosaics include the correct agricultural technology of radish and the timely destruction of pests (weevils and fleas), since the mosaic is often carried by them.

Powdery mildew

A dangerous fungal disease characterized by the appearance of a white coating on the green parts of the radish. Then the plaque darkens, and the leaves curl and dry out, the plant itself dies off.

Powdery mildew is well treated with Bordeaux liquid

For treatment purposes, you can use Planriz (10 ml / 10 L of water) or Bordeaux liquid (dilute 300 g of copper sulfate in 1 L of boiling water, separately dilute 300 g of lime in 1 L of boiling water, bring each solution with water to a volume of 5 L, strain and gently pour a solution of copper sulfate into lime with constant stirring). Usually 1 treatment is enough, but if necessary, you can repeat it after 10 days.

White rust

The main signs of this disease include the appearance of white swelling-spore-storage on the leaves, as well as a change in the color of the affected areas - it becomes pale yellow or white. Then the affected plant dries up and dies off.

If the plant is affected by white rust, then white swellings can be seen on the leaves.

Bordeaux liquid is well suited for treatment. As a rule, 1 treatment is enough. If you need a second one, do it after 10 days.

Radish pests and control measures

Radish is attractive to many pests that can be found in any region.

Cruciferous flea

This small (3mm) dark shiny beetle can ruin your crop badly. Its activity begins in early - mid-May, when the weather becomes dry and warm (+15aboutFROM). The main sign of its appearance is the presence of numerous small holes on the leaves.

Cruciferous flea can damage radish leaves

The following solutions and chemicals are often used to combat it:

  • Tobacco solution. Pour 200 g of leaves with hot water (10 l), leave for 3 hours, strain and add 1 tbsp. l. liquid soap. Spray the planting 1-2 times in 7-10 days.
  • A vinegar solution. 1 tbsp. dilute vinegar (9%) in a bucket (10 l) of water. Spray the planting 1-2 times in 7-10 days.
  • Dandelion infusion. Grind 500 g of fresh leaves and roots (well through a meat grinder) and pour warm (40aboutC) water (10 l), leave for 3 hours, strain and add 1 tbsp. Spray the planting 1-2 times in 7-10 days.
  • Ash solution. 2 tbsp. Dissolve ash and 50 g of grated laundry soap in a bucket (10 l) of water at room temperature. Spray the planting 1-2 times in 7-10 days.
  • Actellic. Dissolve 1 tablet in a bucket (10 l) of water and process the radish once.
  • Aktara. Dissolve 1.2 g of powder in a bucket (10 l) of water and process the radish once.

Video: protecting radishes from cruciferous fleas

Cabbage fly

Outwardly, such a fly is similar to an ordinary fly, but has a smaller size (6 mm) and a light ash color. It is not the fly itself that is dangerous, but its larvae - small (8 mm) white worms that infect the underground part of the radish. Fly begins in early - mid-May, larvae appear after 7–8 days.

Damage to radishes is caused by cabbage fly larvae

To cope with the pest, you can apply the following tools:

  • A solution of ammonia. Dilute 5 ml of the product in a bucket (10 l) of water. Shed the planting at the root, as the larvae hide in the ground. If necessary, repeat the treatment after 7-10 days.
  • Burdock infusion. Chop 2.5 kg of fresh leaves, pour in a bucket (10 l) warm (40-50aboutC) water and leave for 2 days, then strain and spill the soil well. If necessary, repeat the treatment after 7-10 days.
  • Dry mixes. Ash and ground red pepper are popular; shag and ground black pepper; dry slaked lime and makhorka. Powders must be taken in equal parts and sprinkled with a mixture of soil around each plant.
  • Aktellik, Aktara (see above).

Cabbage scoop

This small gray-brown (2.3 cm) butterfly begins its activity in the second decade of May. The radish is harmed by its caterpillars - long (4 cm) grayish-green or dark gray worms, eating up the leaves to a transparent state.

The larvae of the cabbage scoop feed on the leaves of the radish

You can protect the crop using the following means:

  • Pepper solution. Grind dry red pepper (20 g) and boil in 1 liter of water for 1 hour. Strain the broth and leave for 2 days in a tightly closed jar. Dilute in a bucket (10 l) of water before use. If necessary, repeat spraying after 7-10 days.
  • Soda emulsion. Dissolve the powder in a bucket (10 l) of water. If necessary, repeat the treatment after 7-10 days.
  • Ash-tobacco infusion. Mix 1 tbsp. ash, 200 g of tobacco dust, 15 g of mustard powder and pour a bucket (10 l) of boiling water. Insist for a day. Strain before use and add 1 tbsp. If necessary, repeat spraying after 7-10 days.
  • Chemical preparations Inta-Vir, Iskra-M: dilute 1 tablet in a bucket (10 l) of water. Usually 1 treatment is enough.

Weevil

This small, dark bug with a long proboscis can significantly degrade the quality of your radish. Young greenery suffers from its invasions.

The weevil is not only harmful to the crop, but also a carrier of diseases.

They fight it in the following ways:

  1. A solution of ammonia. Dissolve 10 ml of the substance in a bucket (10 l) of water. Carry out 2-3 treatments at intervals of 7-10 days.
  2. Ash-tobacco infusion (see above). Carry out 2-3 treatments at intervals of 7-10 days.

Wireworm

Large worm-like (4 cm) yellow-brown larvae of the click beetle can damage both a young plant, destroying its roots, and ripe radish, making many holes in it. Due to its size and noticeable color, the wireworm can be easily seen when digging a site.

You can cope with a wireworm using chemicals.

In the fight against wireworm, the most effective chemicals are:

  • Initiation, Bazudin. Mix 3 g of powder with 100 g of sand and sprinkle once with soil (1.5 m2) next to the emerging seedlings.
  • Aktara. See above.
  • Potassium permanganate solution. Dissolve 2–4 g of powder in a bucket (10 l) of water at room temperature and pour well the radish under the root. Re-processing can be done in 7-10 days.

Since radish is a vegetable that easily accumulates toxic substances, try to use preparations containing them at least 20 days before harvest.

As you can see, it is not difficult to protect radishes from diseases and pests, the main thing is to notice the symptoms in time and choose the right treatment. Follow all the tips and you will certainly achieve the desired result.

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Processing apple trees in the fall from diseases and pests

The treatment of apple trees in the fall is often ignored, even at the end of the season there is enough time, and the preparations are inexpensive. Spraying against diseases and pests is the finishing touch to systematic gardening. It is imperative to process apple trees in the fall - the health of the tree next year and the quality of the harvest depend on it. Indeed, often cracks in the bark, wrinkled rotten hangs on the branches, become a "winter apartment" for larvae of pests and pathogens.

  1. Processing apple trees in autumn: goals and objectives
  2. How can bushes and apple trees be processed in autumn
  3. inkstone
  4. Copper sulfate
  5. Urea
  6. Fitosporin
  7. Karbofos
  8. Bordeaux mixture
  9. Colloidal sulfur
  10. Garden var
  11. Recipe for garden varnish for processing apple trees in autumn at low temperatures
  12. Garden Vara Recipe for Large Area Cuts
  13. Lime
  14. Complex preparations
  15. Precautions
  16. Preparing apple trees for processing in the fall
  17. Apple tree care in autumn: pest control
  18. How to spray apple trees in the fall from diseases
  19. Other methods of control and prevention
  20. Conclusion

The best time to process gooseberries

Gooseberries are more susceptible to disease than many other berry bushes. Therefore, for the first time, preventive treatment is carried out in early spring, combining it with sanitary pruning. Ready-to-bloom leaf buds and the soil around the bush are sprayed with any fungicide - these preparations kill many pathogenic fungi. The procedure must be repeated after flowering, preferably even twice, with an interval of 10-12 days.

In the spring, preventive measures must be taken before the leaves bloom on the gooseberry bushes.

During the entire period of active growing season, the bushes are sprayed in order to protect against one of the most common and dangerous diseases for the culture - powdery mildew. The first treatment is carried out in April, the last in September. The interval between them is 10-12 days.

In the fall, one should also not forget about prevention, this is a mandatory procedure along with pruning the bush and cleaning the trunk circle from fallen leaves, broken branches, fallen berries, weeds and other plant debris. Processing is best done 2-3 weeks after the entire crop has been harvested.

Gooseberry bushes delight the gardener with a harvest, but at the same time they are regularly attacked by harmful insects and often suffer from diseases

When spraying gooseberries, it is worth remembering that any treatments with chemicals are carried out no later than 30 days before the expected harvest, with drugs of biological origin - 15–20 days. Also, their use is limited during flowering. This also applies to fungicides.


Diseases of roses

Under unfavorable conditions (lack of light, moisture, mineral nutrition or excess nitrogen fertilizers), roses weaken. At the same time, the resistance of plants to many diseases and to pest colonization decreases. Sometimes roses are oppressed to such an extent that they die. Sources of infection with fungal diseases can be stems and leaves remaining on the site after the removal of dead bushes.

Powdery mildew

Young actively growing shoots and leaves are more often sick. At air humidity below 60% and a temperature of 17-18 ° C, powdery mildew is almost not manifested. On the surface of leaves, stems, buds and thorns, a powdery coating of white, ash or grayish color is formed. At first, the plaque is weak, appears in the form of separate spots, but gradually it grows and forms a solid mass over the surface of the affected area. As a result of the disease, tissues are destroyed and a number of physiological processes in roses are disrupted, leaves curl, young sections of shoots die off prematurely.

Measures to combat powdery mildew on a rose: autumn pruning of affected shoots, collection and burning of fallen leaves. Digging the soil with the circulation of the layer - while the pathogens die from a lack of air in the soil. In autumn or early spring (before bud break), after pruning the affected shoots and harvesting fallen leaves, they are sprayed with solutions: 3% iron sulfate with 0.3% potassium sulfate or 3% copper sulfate.

During the growing season, excluding the flowering time, they are regularly (after seven to ten days) sprayed with other preparations approved for use in individual farms. For example, with a copper-soap solution: dissolve 200-300 g of liquid green soap (or 72% household soap) in 9 liters of soft water (preferably rainwater) 20-30 g of copper sulfate dissolve in 1 liter of water, stirring quickly with a soap solution, pour into it with a small stream of a solution of copper sulfate. The solution is ready for use.

For spraying, a 1% suspension of colloidal sulfur is used. Sulfur has a stimulating effect on the growth and development of roses, especially on alkaline soils. This is apparently due to its oxidation and the subsequent increase in water-soluble reserves of nutrients in the soil. Unilateral application of nitrogen increases the development of the disease. Top dressing with potash fertilizers increases the resistance of roses to powdery mildew. With a strong development of the disease, you can spray the plants with soda ash (50 g per 10 l of water).

In addition, in autumn and spring, the soil around the rose bushes is sprinkled with wood ash (100-120 g per 1 m²) and slightly embedded in the surface layer. Once every seven days in the evening they are sprayed with a five-day infusion of ash (200 g per 10 l of water) and mullein (1 kg per 10 l of water). The microelements found in ash and slurry, bacteria destroy the mycelium of the pathogen of powdery mildew and contribute to the healing of roses. Thus, the biological method of control and foliar feeding is carried out. Spraying is repeated until the symptoms of the disease disappear.

Powdery mildew on a rose. © Scot Nelson

Black spot (Marsonina)

This is a fungal disease that manifests itself as a black-brown spot on the leaves of roses. Usually, signs of the disease become noticeable in the second half of the summer. Dark brown radiant spots of various sizes are formed on the leaves, petioles and stipules. With a strong infection, the entire leaf darkens, the leaves dry out and fall off. Mycelium and spores overwinter on shoots and leaves.

Control measures for rose black spot: collecting and burning diseased leaves, pruning and burning diseased shoots, digging up the soil with a turnover, autumn or early spring spraying of roses and soil before bud break with one of the permitted preparations.

Black spot, or marsonina, roses. © Svetlana Lisova

Rust

In spring, an orange dusty mass of spores appears on the stems near the blossoming leaves and root collar. In summer, small orange-yellow sporulation pads are visible on the underside of the leaves. The disease of roses with rust is more pronounced in years with warm and humid springs. As a result, the functions of vegetative organs are disrupted: transpiration increases, photosynthesis decreases, breathing becomes difficult and metabolism is disrupted. With the development of rust, plants are oppressed, the leaves dry out, the stems, shoots and flowers are deformed.

Rose Rust Control Measures: pruning affected shoots, collecting leaves and burning them, digging up the soil, spraying roses before sheltering for the winter with Bordeaux liquid or iron vitriol. During the growing season, they are treated with a copper-soap solution.

Chlorosis

It manifests itself in whitening or yellowing of leaves. The main reasons are the lack of iron, manganese, zinc, magnesium, boron and other elements in the soil. For example, with a lack of iron (usually on calcareous soils), the so-called calcareous form of chlorosis develops. At the same time, the chlorotic color spreads almost over the entire leaf, except for the veins. First, the youngest are affected - the apical leaves. If the disease progresses, small veins also become discolored. The leaf becomes almost white or white with a cream shade. Subsequently, its tissues die off, the leaf falls off.

With a lack of zinc, chlorosis spreads along the entire edge of the leaf and to the tissues between the large lateral veins. Along the central and lateral veins, the leaf retains its green color. At the base of the veins, the green areas of the leaf are wider.

With a lack of magnesium, the lower leaves turn yellow and die off, the veins remain green, the edges of the leaves curl. Boron deficiency manifests itself in the light color of young leaves, they become thickened and brittle. The young growing parts are sick, the ends of the shoots (growth points) die off. Even with a slight excess of alkali, rose leaves begin to chlorose, especially in late autumn and winter.

Rose chlorosis control measures: Establish the cause of the disease by analyzing the soil or plant. Salts of the corresponding nutrients are added to the soil in prescribed doses.

Chlorosis patient and healthy leaf. © Dacnoh

Downy mildew, downy mildew

One of the dangerous diseases of roses, especially rose hips. At the beginning of the disease, brown drying spots appear on the upper side of the leaves, and a grayish, barely noticeable bloom of fungal sporulation on the lower side. Over time, brown spots turn reddish-brown, gray ones gradually turn yellow, then turn brown. The affected tissues die off, the leaves fall off.

The disease develops especially strongly during rainy and hot seasons.

Measures to combat rose peronosporosis: to prevent the disease with the onset of hot and rainy days, the bushes are sprayed with fungicides.


How to get a wireworm out

If you need to get rid of pests in an area where potatoes have already been planted, then you need to do this as quickly as possible and by all available means. We have already talked about how to prevent the appearance of a potato wireworm on your garden plot, what preventive measures need to be taken for this, but what to do if the pest nevertheless reached the area with root crops and began to spoil the precious harvest?

Place as many traps and baits as possible around the area immediately. To do this, you can use three-liter jars with pieces of root vegetables inside. We dig in one such trap for each square meter of the plot and cover them on top with slate or metal sheet. After two to three days, it is necessary to remove the banks from the ground and destroy the larvae trapped in the trap.

You can also prepare an infusion of coltsfoot, dandelion, celandine and nettle according to the following recipe: take 100 grams of celandine, 200 grams of dandelion and coltsfoot, 500 grams of nettle, fill the components with 10 liters of water and infuse the product for 12 hours (celandine is infused for about 3 days), after which the infusion is thoroughly filtered. This tool is used for watering the soil in the area with root crops.

In order not to have to deal with an invisible pest, it is not recommended to grow potatoes on the site for more than two years, alternate the culture with legumes, and treat the tubers with a solution of an active substance, for example, Prestige, which perfectly protect the plant not only from the wireworm, but also from Colorado potato beetle, beetle, bear and others. Also, do not forget about the annual preventive measures that will help protect your garden from the larvae of the click beetle more reliably than any drugs. However, if the condition has nevertheless been brought to a critical point, it is better to use a chemical agent once than to lose the entire crop and promote the reproduction of the wireworm.


Spraying the garden in early spring

As a rule, tree trunks are whitewashed before the onset of cold weather, that is, in autumn. It will help avoid rodent attacks and keep the bark intact, preventing it from cracking from the frosty wind. In the spring, she is only checked after wintering and gets better if necessary. However, if you did not previously know about the need for processing, the beginning of the care of trees and shrubs begins in early spring, before the buds begin to bloom. When the snow melts, gardeners begin to clean up the surroundings of the summer cottage, remove insulation from wrapped boles, remove dead branches. Then they start spring treatment for annoying insects.

First of all, the tree trunks are cleaned from all kinds of fungi, then the bark is treated with a lime solution. It is prepared in this way:

2 kg of lime or lime paste is diluted in 10 liters of water

Add 1 kg of clay and 300-350 g of copper sulfate to the resulting liquid (this will significantly enhance the protective effect)

· Thoroughly knead with the resulting solution, process the trunks and bases of the branches.

This procedure is carried out to burn out the eggs and larvae of insects that remained on the bark and in the cracks of the trunk after winter.

There are also modern, slightly more expensive, but also much more effective means by which it is much easier and faster to whitewash the tree in order to protect it from the attacks of insects and rodents. In addition, they contain fungicides that protect against most diseases. These tasks are handled by:

Acrylic whitewash, such as GreenSqure

Acrylic paints, for example Concord Ost

· Lime pastes containing copper sulfate, such as the Gardener.


How to protect cabbage outdoors

Diseases, insects, cabbage pests and all kinds of parasites - almost all gardeners on their backyards face these troubles every year. Naturally, in this regard, the question arises of how to process the beds and how to protect heads of cabbage growing in open ground from all possible misfortunes.

There are many pest control helpers. Simple folk remedies for delicate effects, and "armor-piercing" industrial preparations, and various care procedures, such as timely loosening of the earth, proper watering and covering young, tender seedlings with a special film, are used.

In addition, site owners browse popular Internet sites, where they view photos of their potential "enemies" and read useful tips to help control pests.

In this article, we dwelled on the most dangerous cabbage exterminators and described effective ways and means of protection against them. Study and apply our recommendations on your site and then aphids, bugs, caterpillars and slugs will never take you by surprise.

Despite the unpretentiousness of cabbage, diseases and pests often affect the culture and spoil not only young, tender seedlings, but also already ripening heads of cabbage. The most unpleasant enemies of a vegetable include:

  1. Cruciferous flea.
  2. White butterfly.
  3. Cabbage aphid.
  4. Slugs.
  5. Cabbage scoop.

These pests greedily pounce on fresh greens, gnaw holes in the leaves, damage the heads, lay offspring inside the heads of cabbage and clog the voids with their excrement.

Seeing uninvited guests on the site, one cannot wait not a minute. It is necessary to take measures immediately and process the plantings with affordable folk remedies, and in difficult situations, use "heavy artillery" - industrial bio-preparations and pesticides.

Agrotechnical techniques

In the open field, cabbage pest control begins with such simple actions as thorough weeding of row spacings, loosening of adjacent soil and regular hilling of plants. So that small parasites do not even think about approaching ripening heads of cabbage, the beds are sprinkled with ash or tobacco dust and this procedure is repeated every time after the rain has passed.

The area where cabbage lives is planted with fragrant herbs (dill, rosemary, basil, etc.) or flowers (marigolds, etc.). These plants, with their pronounced aroma, scare away pests, and, on the contrary, attract beneficial insects.

Traditional methods

You can fight cabbage pests not only with industrial chemicals, but also with various folk remedies. It is also convenient because natural, natural ingredients are almost always at hand, provide excellent results and are more gentle on soil and vegetables.

    Fragrant herbs and natural decoctions. You can water the cabbage beds with tomato tops steamed with boiling water, tincture of tansy or celandine. This simple method of protection will make it possible to scare off the caterpillars of white butterflies from the site.

If you coarsely chop the leaves and stems of bitter wormwood, and then scatter it directly over the ripening cabbage, then other types of butterflies will avoid the beds until the grass is completely dry and no longer exudes a specific spicy aroma. For the same purpose, a strong infusion of onion husks or a decoction of green garlic arrows is suitable. Sensing a pungent smell, the pests simply do not want to even approach the plot.

This medication will help get rid of the slug attack. It is necessary to carefully scatter the lime powder around the plants and around the garden in the manner of a protective circle. Thus, parasites from the snail family will not be able to get close to defenseless heads of cabbage at night. If you don't have lime on hand, dolomite flour, tobacco dust, or mustard powder will do.

All of these ingredients have a very pungent, unpleasant odor to which slugs are extremely sensitive.

With their help, there is a chance to completely destroy aphids, winter moth and larvae of May beetles on cabbage beds. To prepare a protective elixir, it is necessary to combine mustard powder (1 tbsp) with soap shavings (1 tbsp), tobacco dust (1 tbsp) and ash (1 tbsp), mix well, pour into an enamel bucket and pour all the components with boiling water ... Insist for a day, strain very thoroughly and shed aisles well on the plot.

Popular drugs

Pesticides and industrial chemicals are what should be used to treat cabbage from pests in the event of a serious epidemic or sudden invasion of large populations of parasites. Successfully overcome all the most common diseases and destroy the most aggressive insects such means as:

    Bankcol is a strong, effective insecticide that can rid a cabbage plot of many types of pests, including herbivorous mites, in just 2-3 days.

Through the neurotoxin that is part of it, it acts on the nervous system of parasites and causes complete immobilization. The insect loses its ability to feed and as a result

Iskra-M is a kind of "first aid" in the laborious and complex matter of pest control. First of all, it destroys all kinds of leaf-gnawing insects (caterpillars, scale insects, moths, ticks, weevils, etc.).

Belongs to the class of modern two-component drugs, due to which it has enhanced performance characteristics. Contains potassium dressing, which helps the heads of cabbage in an accelerated mode to restore damaged areas of the leaves. Completely leaves the plant after 20 days.

Fury is a low-toxic, economical and effective preparation of intestinal action on an insecticidal basis.

Contributes to the destruction of whites, aphids and moths. Completely emerges from cabbage leaves after 25 days. It can be used both in private household plots and in fields where cabbage is grown on an industrial scale.

Kemifos - refers to universal drugs that are effective against a large number of pests of different types.

It is most often used in the early spring period, when young seedlings, only planted in open ground, are most vulnerable to parasites such as ticks and flying insects.

Acts in three directions: contact, intestinal and fumigative. It is excreted from ripening heads of cabbage in 25-30 days. Diseases, insects and pests of cabbage cause a lot of trouble and significantly reduce the level of fruiting of a popular vegetable crop in the open field.


Watch the video: Key Principles for Managing Pests u0026 DIsease in a Vegetable Garden: Aphids, Slugs, Powdery Mildew


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